RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, VOL. 19, ES2007, doi:10.2205/2018ES000643, 2019

On the carbon cycle and its interactions with the biosphere

Nabil H. Swedan


The submitted work reveals that interactions between the carbon cycle and the biosphere may be calculated using traditional thermodynamic equations. Presently, anthropogenic activities have changed the natural carbon cycle and climate parameters, which have direct effects at the societal and economical levels. For instance, engineering design parameters particularly those related to civil, environmental, and agricultural projects will not be the same as today. They will be different as long as the interactions between humans and the environment continue their present trends. The thermodynamic analysis of these interactions is broad and complex, and the manuscript is limited to providing parameterizations of the analysis. The observed surface warming is caused by heat produced by the carbon cycle. Deforestation has averaged nearly 0.19% annually since the Industrial Revolution, and its present contribution to surface warming is about 50%. The remainder of surface warming is attributed to energy produced by the world, which has a decreasing trend of $-0.82$% annually. The contribution of deforestation to surface warming has a decreasing trend as well, and the net surface greening is increasing by 0.08% annually. Approximate current precipitation trend is $-0.31$ mm annually, which is considerably greater than that of past natural climates.

Received 31 October 2018; accepted 21 November 2018; published 10 April 2019.

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Citation: Swedan Nabil H. (2019), On the carbon cycle and its interactions with the biosphere, Russ. J. Earth Sci., 19, ES2007, doi:10.2205/2018ES000643.

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