It follows from the identity
^{2} *V*/ *T* *P* = ^{2} *V*/
*P* *T* that [*Birch,* 1952]

(30) |

This fundamental relation is written in the dimensionless form

(31) |

where the isothermal Anderson-Grüneisen
parameter
*d*_{T} is introduced
[*O. Anderson,* 1966a, 1967;
* Barron,* 1979].

The variation of
*a* with temperature at
*P* = const is
characterized by the parameter
*a* * Fürth,*
1944;
* O. Anderson,* 1966b;
* Birch,* 1986;
* O. Anderson et al.,* 1993]

(32) |

The term

can be related to the derivatives of
*C*_{V} and
*K*_{T},
by making use of the identity
^{2}*S*/ *V* *T* = ^{2} *S*/
*T* *V*, which leads to

(33) |

Similarly, the identity
^{2}*S* / *P*
*T* = ^{2}*S* /
*T*
*P* yields

(34) |

where the convenient dimensionless product is used

* Birch* [1952] pointed out that parameter
*d*_{T} for various
materials usually lies between 4 and 8 (at normal conditions),
which was borne out by subsequent studies
[see, e.g., * Sumino and O. Anderson,* 1984;
* O. Anderson et al.,* 1992a]
some exclusions are also encountered: e.g.,
*d*_{T} 1 for
KMnF
_{3} and
*d*_{T} 77 for Re
_{2} O
_{3}.

The parameter
*a* values at normal conditions are commonly
greater than the
*d*_{T} values
[*Birch,* 1952;
* O. Anderson et al.,* 1992a].
The data and estimates listed in the tables of
* Pankov et al.* [1997] for 25 minerals fall into the range
10 *a* 270. However, at high temperatures
( *T* > *Q* ),
the
*d*_{T} and
*a* values become closer to each other,
and their concidence would mean that
*a* were dependent
only on volume (i.e., the intrinsic anharmonicity were
suppressed).

The following three assumptions and their consequences are of interest:

(1) The specific heat
*C*_{V} is independent of pressure, i.e.,
*C*_{V} = *C*_{V}(*T*),
as in the Van der Vaals or Hildebrand EOS's
[*O. Anderson,* 1979a], or alternatively,
*C*_{V} = const, as in the
classical limit at
*T* > *Q*. Then, from (32) and (33),

(35) |

At
*P* = 0,
*d*_{T} *K*^{}
is the common case.

(2)
*K*_{T} depends only on volume; the
*K*_{T}(*V*) approximation is
often warranted at
*T* > *Q* [*O. Anderson,* 1982;
* D. Anderson,* 1988, 1989].
Then,
( *K*_{T}/ *T*)_{V} = 0,
and from (29) and (31), we have
*K*^{} = *d*_{T};
i.e.,
*d*_{T} either depends
only on
volume or is a constant (leading to the Murnaghan EOS (44)).

(3) If both conditions (1) and (2) take place, then
*a* = *a*(*V*)
and
*K*^{} = *d*_{T}
= *a* (that is either volume-dependent
or a constant).

In most of the interiror of the Earth,
*T* > *Q* and
*a* minimally depends on temperature. Consider a
few
approximate relations for evaluating the isothermal or adiabatic
variation of
*a*.

By using the general EOS form of (28) and the formula
(12), we find the expansion for
*a*

(36) |

If only two first terms are retained in (36), then the formula
of * Birch* [1952, 1968] derives.
It should be noted that
*a* in this formula changes its sign at
*K*_{T}/*P* = *d*_{T0}
(the
condition that may be achieved in the lower mantle at
*K*_{T}/*P* = 4.7 ).
Moreover, in this case,
*d*_{T} given by most
of the
type (28) EOS's increases with pressure instead of its usual
decrease (see section 9). It was shown, however, that such a
change in the
*a* sign is forbidden thermodynamically
[*Pankov,* 1992].

As an example of using (36), we calculated
*a*(*P*/*K*_{0})
with
the help of the EOS form proposed by
* Ullmann and Pankov* [1976, 1980],
for which

(37) |

so that

(38) |

First, we set
*dK*^{}_{0}/ *T* = 0 and neglect terms containing
*K*^{}_{0},
*K*^{}_{0},. The
*a*/*a*_{0}
versus
*P*/*K*_{0} curves, obtained for
resonable values
*K*^{}_{0}
= 3 and 4 and
*d*_{T0} = 2, 4, and
6,
are shown in Figure 1. For change from
*P* to volume, Figure 2 gives
the variation of
*P*/*K*_{0} with
*x*. We see, in particular, that
the
*d*_{T0} values significantly
affect the estimated
*a* under lower-mantle conditions (at the base of
the
mantle compressed along its "hot" adiabat,
*x* 0.7 and
*P*/*K*_{0}
0.70 for
*K*_{0} 1.9-2.0
Mbar and
*K*^{}_{0}
= 3.8-4.1 [*D. Anderson,* 1989]). Furthermore, the
approximation used for
*a* may lead to the nonrealistic result
*a*< 0 within
the lower mantle.

To illustrate the influence of the non-zero
*dK*^{}_{0}/ *T* values,
now we allow for the third term in (36), with the setting
*dK*^{}_{0}/ *T* = 2 10^{-3} K
^{-1} (the values that we estimated for NaCl
from data discussed by Birch [*Birch,* 1978]). The value
2 10^{-3} K
^{-1} is not realistic since it results in the increase of
*a* with pressure (Figures 1 and 3). On
the other hand, the
negative value
-2 10^{-3} K
^{-1} is too small, since it considerably
lessens the pressure at which the condition
*a* 0 mentioned
above is reached.

The approximations
*K*^{} = *d*_{T}
(see above) and
*d*_{T} constant at
*T* > *Q* imply a very weak temperature
dependence of
*K*^{}. The lattice
dynamics models show
that
*K*^{} for
MgSiO
_{3} perovskite varies less than 10%
in the temperature range of 300-2000 K ( *dK*^{}_{0}/ *T* 2 10^{-4} K
^{-1} ). The theoretical PIB model for MgO
[*Isaak et al.,* 1990;
* O. Anderson et al.,* 1993] shows that
*dK*^{}_{0}/ *T* somewhat increases
with temperature in the same interval of 300-2000 K, with the
values ranging, on average, from
2.8 10^{-4} to
4.2 10^{-4} K
^{-1}.
Values of a similar order follow from the approximation
*d* ln *K*^{}_{0}/*d*
ln*r* = -1 indicated by * D. Anderson*
[1989] for PREM.

The derivative
*dK*^{}_{0}/*d*
*T* can also be estimated by the
approximation
*K*_{T} = *K*_{T}(*V*)
(i.e.,
*K*^{} = *d*_{T}
and (70) are
allowed for) noted above

(39) |

where the primes indicate pressure derivatives. With
*a* 3 10^{-5} K
^{-1} and
-*K*_{T}*K*^{} 5-10 [e.g., * Pankov and Ullmann,* 1979a;
* Hofmeister,* 1991b], we find
*dK*^{}_{0}/ *T* (1-3) 10^{-4} K^{-1}, which is
close to the estimates found above.

Finally, we can use identity (91) from section 9, which
of course leads to (39) for
*K*^{} = *d*_{T}
(see (71)). Although
the terms in (91) are close to each other, the reasons given
below justify the inequality
(*d*_{T}/ *P*)_{T} 0,
and consequently,

(40) |

Substituting the parameter values from Tables 2 and
3 (see
also tables in * Pankov et al.* [1997]) into the right
side of the
above, we find

It should be emphasized that the correction to
*a* in (36)
related to this derivative enables us to avoid negative
or increased values of
*a* at high pressures. The effect of
the value
*dK*^{}_{0}/*dT*
= 2 10^{-4} K
^{-1} on the
*a* curve for
*K*^{}_{0}
= *d*_{T0} = 4 is
shown in Figure 1.

* O. Anderson* [1967] derived the power law

(41) |

by integrating (30) and (8), provided that

which yields

(42) |

where parameter
*q* is defined as

(43) |

Moreover, he assumed that
*d*_{T} *K*^{} const.
The constancy of
*K*^{} (or alternatively,
*K*^{} = *K*^{}(*T*) ) leads to the
Murnaghan EOS (of a type of (28))

(44) |

It is clear that (41) simply follows from the definition of
*d*_{T} by (31) on
the condition that
*d*_{T} is either
only temperature-dependent,
*d*_{T} = *d*_{T}(*T*),
or is a
constant; moreover, (44) can be replaced with any suitable
approximation to the isotherm
*P*(*V*, *T*_{0}).

The two functions
*a*(*V*, *T*) and
*P*(*V*, *T*), however,
cannot be picked independently. For example, the EOS can
apparently be defined by specifying
*a*(*V*, *T*) and
*P*(*V*, *T*_{0}).
At this point, it is appropriate to discuss the
following generalization of the results mentioned in various
papers
[*Birch,* 1968;
* Clark,* 1969;
* O. Anderson,* 1986;
* D. Anderson,* 1989]. Consider four statements:
(* 1*) the Murnaghan
EOS (44) is valid, where it is assumed that
*K*_{0} is a function
of temperature,
*K*_{0}(*T*), and
*K*^{}_{0}
is either a constant or
depends only on temperature; (* 2*)
(*d*_{T}/ *P*)_{T} = 0
(i.e.,
*d*_{T} = const or
*d*_{T} = *d*_{T}(*T*) );
(* 3*)
( *K*^{}/ *T*)_{P}
= 0 ; (* 4*)
*d*_{T} = *K*^{} that, according to (71), is equivalent
to
*K*_{T} = *K*_{T}(*V*)
(i.e.,
*t*(*T*) = *a**K*_{T}
or
*t* = const).

Then, by making use of identities (44), (71), (91), and (92), it
can be proved that, if any two (except the pair (* 1*) and (* 3*))
of the four statements above hold true, then the other two
statements are also valid. Moreover, then
*d*_{T} = *K*^{} =
const and (44) always takes place. If, in addition to these two
statements, it is assumed that
*C*_{V} = const or
*C*_{V} = *C*_{V}(*T*),
then we have
*a* = *a*(*V*),
*K*^{} = *d*_{T}
= *a* = const and
*t* = const (see section 6.1 and (69) and (71)).

It is clear that such statements place constraints on the EOS
formulation. For example, when an equation of type (28) is
accepted instead of the Murnaghan EOS, only one of the above
statements can strictly be true. Specifically, the concurrent
use of the Birch-Murnaghan EOS and the assumption
*d*_{T} = *d*_{T}(*T*)
(or
*d*_{T} = const) is
incompatible with the
condition
*d*_{T} = *K*^{} or
*K*^{} = *K*^{}(*P*).

Another not obvious inference is that the Murnaghan equation
(44) uniquely follows from the assumptions
*K*_{T} = *f*(*P*) + *aT* ( *a* being a constant) and
*t* = *t*(*T*)
or const.

It is interesting to consider the use of the Murnaghan formula
as the potential (lattice) part of the
*P*-*V*-*T* EOS in the
classical high-temperature approximation. In general, for
*C*_{V} = const,
we have a linear dependence of
*K*_{T}(*V*, *T*) on
*T* (see
(69) and (70)), and only for
*g*/*x* = const ( *q* = 1 ) and
the Murnaghan potential, we obtain

where
*a*,
*b*, and
*c* are constants ( *K*^{} = const).
Hence, it is
seen that all isotherms
(*T* 0) are also represented by formula
(44), but for a nonlinear
*g* (*x*) behavior, this is,
strictly speaking, not the case.

The consideration presented above concerns also the Birch's law,
which for minerals with the mean atomic mass of
*m* = 20-22
g/mole can be written in the power form
*K*_{T} = *aV*^{b}
(where
*a* and
*b* are constants and the distinction between
*K*_{S} and
*K*_{T} is neglected). Since here
*K*^{} = const and
*K*_{T} = *K*_{T}(*V*)
and
(44) is used, this law gives rise to
*d*_{T} = *K*^{} = const,
formula (41), and for
*C*_{V} = const,
*a* = *a* (*V*).

Figure 1 shows the behavior
*a* determined by (41), where
the EOS is found by (37) with
*K*^{}_{0}
= 3 and 4 (the respective
*a* curves pass through the ends of the bars in
Figure 1).

The original assumption of * O. Anderson* [1967]
*d*_{T} = const
was justified by the ultrasonic and shock-wave data of that time
and was seemingly corroborated by later ultrasonic and resonance
measurements [*O. Anderson et al.,* 1990;
* Chopelas and Boehler,* 1992].
In particular, based on data for seven minerals, the
value of
*d*_{T} = 4-6 was
recommended to be representative
of the lower mantle. However, analyzing seismological and
geoid data, * D. Anderson* [1987, 1989]
found
*d*_{T} = 2-3 for
in situ lower-mantle conditions. The assumption can therefore be
made that
*d*_{T} must decrease
with pressure. Evidence for
this can also be found in shock-wave and static compression data
[*Birch,* 1986; * O. Anderson et al.,* 1993].

* Ab initio* calculations for MgO by * Reynard and Price* [1990]
give
a constant value in the range
0.7 *x* 1.0.
Another * ab initio*
results [Isaak et al., 1990] reveal, however, that
*d*_{T} actually decreases
by decreasing
*x*.

To determine the
*a* (*x*) more accurately than given by
the power law (41), * Chopelas and Boehler* [1992]
used data on the
adiabatic pressure gradient
*t*_{S} and specific
heat
*C*_{P}.
From the Maxwell relation (14), they derived

(45) |

where
*n* (
ln *t*_{S}/ ln *V*)_{T}.
Then, they set
*n* = *mx*, where
*m* = 6 1 from
measurements for weakly compressible materials, and
( ln *C*_{P}/
ln *V*)_{T}
= 1 or 0
for
*T* < *Q* or
*T* > *Q*, respectively (compare with
the data listed in Table 3 and the paper by
* Pankov et al.* [1997]).
Thus, the Chopelas and Boehler' formula for
*a* can be written in the form

(46) |

(47) |

* O. Anderson et al.* [1992a, 1992b,
1993]
favored the power law
*d*_{T} = *d*_{T0}*x*^{k}
(for
*T* *Q* ) that yields

(48) |

with only small deviation from values by (47). The value of
*k* = 1.1-1.4 in (48) was inferred from the theoretical PIB model of
* Isaak et al.* [1990].

Applying (47) or (48) to the lower mantle, we find that
*a* decreases 4-5 times along the "hot" lower-mantle
adiabat, from
the state
*P* = 0 and
*T* 1700-2000 K to the base of the
mantle. The power law (41) with
*d*_{T} = 5-6 gives
a greater
decrease in
*a* (6-8 times), and the same law with
*d*_{T} = 2-3 results
in a smaller decrease of
*a* (2-3 times). Although approximations (47) and
(48) are more
preferable than (41), they require additional confirmation and
information on parameters
*m*,
*k*, and
( ln *C*_{P}/ ln *V*)_{T}.
*a* in the lower mantle by (36) and
(37), as described in section 6.2.1, with
*dK*^{}_{0}/*d*
*T* = 2.3 10^{-4}
K^{-1},
gives the results close to those derived from (47) or (48)
(Figure 3).

Similar results for
*a* with
*d*_{T} decreasing
under
compression were obtained by * Zharkov* [1997]
from his analysis of
EOS's at extremely high pressures. Still earlier, * Zharkov* [1959]
showed that the lower mantle thermodynamics quantified on the
basis of the Debye model and seismic data gives the 4-5-fold
decrease in
*a* at the mantle base compared to the value at
*P* = 0.

To this point, considering
*a* at high compression,
we have not applied to the Grüneisen parameter
*g*.
However, the problem of thermal expansivity at high pressures
and temperatures is intimately related to the problem of a
similar variation of the Grüneisen parameter.
* D. Anderson* [1987, 1989]
characterized the lower-mantle thermodynamics by
using the acoustic or Brilloin
*g*. For the adiabatic
lower mantle, he found from PREM that
*g*_{0} = 1.4 and
*a*_{0} = 3.8 10^{-5} K
^{-1} at
*P* = 0 and
*T* = 1700 K;
the value of
*g* was determined by the thermodynamic relation
(8) for
*C*_{V} = const ( *T* > *Q* ). Given function
*g* (*V*), the
variation of
*a* with volume in the classical temperature
range can be evaluated by the formula derived from (8)

(49) |

Note that the thermodynamic parameter
*g*, generally
speaking, is different from the so-called lattice Grüneisen
parameter [e.g., * Mulargia,* 1977;
* D. Anderson,* 1989;
* O. Anderson,* 1968, 1979b,
1980].
However, assuming that the latter
depends only on volume, both parameters were found to coincide
(the same inference follows from the quasiharmonic atomistic
model of EOS at high temperatures, when, on the other hand, we
come up with the purely thermodynamic consequence
*g* = *g* (*V*)
for
*C*_{V} = const (see section 11).

The three most familiar formulas for the lattice
*g* can be
written in the general form [*Zharkov and Kalinin,* 1971]

(50) |

where
*m* = 0, 1, or 2 gives the formulas of Slater,
Dugdale-Macdonald, and Zubarev-Vashcheno (or
* Irvine and Stacey* [1975]),
respectively. The latter of these formulas appears to
be the most favored, at least at
*T* > *Q*, for high
symmetry crystals. Following * Leibfried and Ludwig,* 1961],
*g* can approximately be expressed in terms of the
root-mean-square frequency of atomic oscillations. For cubic
crystals with the central interaction, when only the nearest
neighbors are allowed for, this approximation also leads to the
Zubarev-Vashchenko formula [*Pankov,* 1983;
* Hofmeister,* 1991a].

Calculation by (50) requires knowledge of the
*P*(*V*) dependence
at
*T* = 0 K, but the replacement of the
*T* = 0 K isotherm by any
isotherm at
*T* > 0 K is not significant for this case. Using the
EOS from (37) at
*K*_{0}^{}=4
and determining
*g* by (50) at
*m* = 2 and then
*a* by (49), we obtain
*a*_{0}/*a*
= 1.7
for
*x* = 0.7 (that is approximately at the mantle base).
Such a small decrease in
*a* compared to the 4-5-fold
decrease found above is due to the fact that the EOS by (37),
like many other
*P*(*V*) relationships
[*Pankov and Ullmann,* 1979b],
results in a low value of the slope

calculated from (50). This either tells us that a more
flexible EOS involving the independent parameter
*K*_{0}*K*^{}_{0} *K*_{2} (such as in model 2 by
* Ullmann and Pankov* [1980] or the
Birch-Murnaghan fourth-order EOS) must be introduced, or some
amendments to (50) are required. The Zubarev-Vashchenko formula
was somewhat improved by * Stacey* [1981, 1992],
but nevertheless, the slope
*q* for most two-parametric
( *K*_{0} and
*K*^{}_{0} )
EOS's
appears to remain low).

Another useful approximation for
*g* is the empirical power
law [e.g., * O. Anderson,* 1968, 1974;
* McQueen et al.,* 1970]

(51) |

where
*q* is often assumed to be one, according to shock-wave
data [*McQueen,* 1991] or studies of the mantle
[*O. Anderson,* 1979b;
* D. Anderson,* 1989]. From (49) with
*q* = 1, we find
Birch's formula
*a**K*_{T} = *a*_{0}*K*_{0}
= const, which gives
*a*_{0}/*a*
= 3.5-4.0 at the mantle base (for
*x* = 0.7,
*K*^{}_{0}
= 4,
*K*_{T}/*K*_{0} =
3.51, and
*T* = 2000-3000 K). The value
of
*q* = 1.5-2.0 may be more favored for the mantle perovskite
[*Pankov et al.,* 1998], yielding, however,
*a*_{0}/*a*
= 4.2-5.0 that is close to the result obtained from
(47) and (48).

Note that, according to (49), the assumption of the power laws
for
*a* (41) and
*g* (51) again gives the
Murnaghan EOS (44). Since the latter fits data well over a range
of
*P*/*K*_{0} 0.3 ( *x* 0.82 ), we expect (41) to be a sufficient
approximation for
*a* in the same compression range.

* Duffy and Ahrens* [1993] estimated
*a* from shock wave
data for MgO, CaO, CaMgSi
_{2} O
_{6} and
*e* -Fe at pressures to
*P* > 140 GPa. By using (49) and (51) with
*q* = const and
*K*_{T}/*K*_{0} from
the PIB model for MgO [*Isaak et al.,* 1990],
they found
*q* = 0.5 0.5 that is smaller than
*q* = 0.83-1.26 in the
compression range
*x* = 0.67-1.0 along the PIB isotherm.
Periclase is more compressible than the lower mantle matter and
has
*x* = 0.67 at
*P* = 134 GPa near the mantle base (according to
the PIB 2000 K isotherm of MgO,
*P*/*K*_{0} = 1.047,
*K*_{T}/*K*_{0} =
4.699,
and
*K*^{} = 4.74 ).
With these values, the shock wave
results of Duffy and Ahrens for MgO give
*a*_{0}/*a*
= 3.1-4.7
at the mantle base ( *x* = 0.67 ), i.e., the value 1-1.6
times less than
*a*_{0}/*a*
by (47) and (48) at the
typical value of
*d*_{T0} = 5 1 (if the value
*d*_{T0} = 4 is used
in (47) and (48), the resulting
*a*_{0}/*a*
value will be closer to the shock-wave
estimate above). These results can be viewed as an argument for
the decrease of both
*d*_{T} and
*q* under compression.

In analysis of the volume dependence of
*g*,
* O. Anderson et al.* [1993] proposed the power law

(52) |

which, similarly to (48), yields

(53) |

Setting
*q*_{0} = 1.5-2.0 and
*n* = 1 (as for MgO, according to
* O. Anderson et al.* [1992b]), we find from (49)
that
*a*_{0}/*a*
= 4-4.5 at
*x* = 0.7. Note that
*q*_{0} for MgO
descends from 1.72 to 1.26 as temperature increases from 300 K
to 2000 K [*O. Anderson et al.,* 1993].

In total, many estimates of
*a*_{0}/*a*
using various
methods described above consistently show that the thermal
expansion coefficient in the lower mantle decreases 4-5 times
along the hot low-mantle adiabat as the pressure increases from
zero to the base of the mantle. Nevertheless, the complete
consensus on all the parameter values related to these estimates
(e.g., for
*q* and
*d*_{T} ) has
yet not been achieved.

Most data on thermal expansion refers to the dependence
*a*(*T*) = *a*_{0} at
*P* = 0. The value of
*a*_{0} is
necessary, in particular, to extrapolate the thermal expansivity
data to higher pressures in the mantle. The typical behavior of
*a*(*T*) is illustrated in Figures 4 and
5. Usually, the data
at
*P* = 0 are fitted using the empirical formula [e.g.,
* Fei et al.,* 1990, 1991]

(54) |

which we used to calculate
*a* presented in Table 2 (and in
* Pankov et al.* [1997]). Note that the applicability
of (54) can
also be justified by calculations of phase diagrams
[*Fei et al.,* 1990, 1991].

A theoretically based approach to calculating
*a*(*T*) was
developed by * Suzuki* [1975a, 1975b],
who used the Mie-Grüneisen EOS yielding

(55) |

where
*E*_{t} is the Debye thermal energy

*k* = 1/2(*K*^{}_{0}-1),
*Q* = *K*_{0}*V*_{0} / *g*, and
*D*(*z*) is the Debye function.
Here, it is assumed that
*g* = constant, and
parameters
*K*_{0} and
*K*_{0}^{}
are defined at
*T* = 0. The fitted
parameters are
*Q*,
*k*, and
*Q*. Formula (55) is derived
by expanding the potential pressure in
*V* and truncating at only
two first terms. The
*Q* values obtained from this method
are given in Table 2 (see also * Pankov et al.* [1997]).

* O. Anderson et al.* [1992a] extrapolated
*a*_{0}(*T*) from a
fixed value at
*T*^{} > *Q*
to higher temperature using the
relation

(56) |

where
*d*_{T} = *a*
= constant (see (32)). Formula (56)
is easily derived from the condition that
*a*_{0} at
*P* = 0 varies with density by the power law. Note that (56) has an
asymptote close to which
*a* dramatically increase with
temperature (reflecting to some extent the fact that the
potential energy has an inflection point).

For a more complete consideration of the temperature
behavior of
*a*, we calculated
*a*(*T*) for three
minerals from the Mie-Grüneisen EOS (with
the Debye model), in
which, unlike the Suzuki method,
*g*(*x*) was found by (51)
with
*q* = 0, 1, and 2, and room-temperature isotherms were
represented by equations (28) and (37). The material parameters
of the EOS's were found from values of
*r*,
*K*_{S},
*a*,
*C*_{P}, and
( *K*_{S}/ *P*)_{T} at
normal conditions (Tables 2 and
3).

The results of the computations are shown by the solid lines in
Figures 4 and
5. We see that the curves for periclase and
particularly forsterite systematically deviate from the
experimental points at high temperatures, although there is a
considerable uncertainty in data for
*a* at high
temperatures. Nevertheless, such deviations can be caused by
the fact that the temperature dependence of
*g* (at
*V* =
const) is not accounted for in the Mie-Grüneisen
EOS
[*Mulargia,* 1977;
* Mulargia and Boschi,* 1980;
* Mulargia et al.,* 1984;
* O. Anderson et al.,* 1992a;
* Molodets,* 1998]. To gain a better insight into the
quality
of the Mie-Grüneisen EOS and to construct
a self-consistent
database on EOS parameters, it is very important to measure the
thermal expansivity of minerals at high temperatures, up to
their melting points. This conclusion was emphasized by many
authors [e.g., * Saxena,* 1988, 1989;
* Goto et al.,* 1989;
* Isaak et al.,* 1989b;
* Gillet et al.,* 1991;
* Richet et al.,* 1992].